Instructor: Tejaswini Niranjana
Course Requirements: 4 short assignments
This course is intended to explore some of the ways in which we might theorise the connections between democracy and culture in contemporary India. It will also serve as an introduction to the kind of inter-disciplinary research being done at CSCS.
Introduction: The Problem of Representation
Edward Said, Introduction and Chapter I of Orientalism
Gayatri Spivak, “Deconstructing Historiography”
M.K.Gandhi, Hind Swaraj
Jawaharlal Nehru, selected essays
B.R.Ambedkar, Annihilation of Caste
Partha Chatterjee, “The Thematic and the Problematic”
Rajni Kothari, “Rise of the Dalits and the Renewed Debate on Caste”
Ashis Nandy, “The Twilight of Certitudes: Secularism, Hindu Nationalism and other Masks of Deculturation”
Carl E.Pletsch, “The Three Worlds, or the Division of Social Scientific Labor, circa 1950-1975”
Satish Deshpande, “Squinting at Society”
Romila Thapar, “Decolonising the Past”
Ranajit Guha, “The Prose of Counter-Insurgency”
Susie Tharu, “Government, Alienation and Binding”
Session 5: Culture and democracy: new social movements; ‘political society’; language/identity
Partha Chatterjee, Politics of the Governed (Chapters 1 and 2)
------, “Beyond the Nation, or Within?”
Janaki Nair, “Memories of Underdevelopment”
M.Madhava Prasad, “Cine Politics”
Veena Das, “Communities as Political Actors: The Question of Cultural Rights”
Flavia Agnes, “Minority Identity and Gender Concerns”
Anveshi Law Committee, “Is Gender Justice only a Legal Issue? The Political Stakes in the UCC Debate”
David Scott, “Colonial Governmentality”
Kuan-Hsing Chen, “Why is ‘great reconciliation’ impossible? De-Cold War/Decolonization, or Modernity and its Tears”
Kim Soyoung, “The Birth of the Local Feminist Sphere in the Global Era: ‘Trans-Cinema’ and yosongjang”
Session 8: Tejaswini Niranjana
“Left to the Imagination: Indian Nationalisms and Female Sexuality”; “Take a Little Chutney: The Body in the Voice” (from Mobilizing India)
Session 9: SV Srinivas
“Film Culture, Politics and Industry”
“Fans, Families and Censorship: The Alluda Majaka Controversy”
Session 10: Vivek Dhareshwar
“Valorizing the Present”
Session 11: Ashish Rajadhyaksha
Sessions 12, 13, 14 (Visiting Faculty): Valerian Rodrigues
Monsoon Semester 2005
502: Law, Rights and Culture
(Crosslisted with NLSIU as an optional seminar course for the final year students)
Instructors: Sitharamam Kakarala & Mathew John
Course Requirements: A Term Paper
This course aims at exploring the interplay between culture and Law-Rights in such a way that certain interdisciplinary concerns in the research and teaching of law in general, and legal theories and philosophies in particular in regular law schools and departments, are addressed. The course however does not have a clear hypothesis. It is exploratory in nature and addresses four themes, which I believe are important, and could potentially not only illuminate our understanding on them but also redefine legal pedagogic engagement. The first theme explores into the histories and philosophies of “path-making” in modern law with the help of a set of critical texts with a view to critically reflect on the question of ‘normativity’. Similarly the second theme will address what is by now a well-explored theme in cultural studies, viz., “cultural translations and the problem of intelligibility”. I hope the readings chosen for the theme adequately represent the complexity of the issue and also help us grapple with the core concerns. The third theme broadly looks at the contributions of anthropologists to the understanding of custom and law, including the negotiations of rules and laws outside the realm of state. The fourth theme attempts at addressing some of the keenly contested contemporary concerns in law and society studies such as the imaginations of “secularism” and identity politics.
Towards Understanding the Crisis of higher education in Social Sciences
Gulbenkian Commission, Open The Social Sciences, 1991.
Patrizia Lombardo, “Cultural Studies and Interdisciplinarity”
Bringing Interdisciplinarity into Legal Studies:
Rajeev Dhawan, “Legal Research in India”
Edward Rubin, “Law and the Methodology of law”
Anthony Bradney, “Law as a Parasitic Discipline”
Lon L. Fuller, “The case of the Speluncean Explorers”
Samuel Thompson, “The Authority of Law”
Henrey Maine, The Ancient Law
Bentham, Selections from Theory of Legislation
Peter Fitzpatrick, Modernism and Grounds of Law
Malinowski, Crime and Custom in Savage Society
Janaki Nair, Women and Law in Colonial India
Mahmood Mamdani, Citizen and Subject
Eric Stokes, The English Utilitarians and India. Ch. III.
Sanjay Nigam, “Disciplining and Policing the ‘Criminals by Birth’”.
Ronen Shamir and Daphna Hacker, “Colonialism’s Civilising Mission: The Case of the Indian Hemp Drug Commission”.
A.K. Ramanujan, “Is there an Indian way of Thinking?”
Ashis Nandy, “History’s Forgotten Doubles.
Partha Chatterjee, “Community in the east”
Comaroff, “Colonialism, law…”
Sally Engle Merry, “Resistance and Cultural Power of Law.
Alan Hunt, “The Role of Law in the Civilizing Process and the Reform of Popular Culture”.
R.S. Khare, “Indigenous Culture and Lawyer’s Law in India”.
Robert Porter, “Strengthening Tribal Sovereignty through Peacemaking: How the Anglo-American Legal Tradition Destroys Indigenous Societies”.
Satyamurthy, Rights of Citizens
Sudhir Chandra, Enslaved Daughters.
Upendra Baxi, Future of Human Rights, ch. 3.
Satish Sabharwal, in Satish Sabharwal and Hieko Seivers eds., Laws, Rules and Constitutions.
Sumit Guha, in Satish Sabharwal and Hieko Seivers eds., Laws, Rules and Constitutions.
Sally Falk Moore, “Certainties Undone: Fifty Turbulent Years of Legal Anthropology, 1949-1999”.
Clifford Geertz, “Local Knowledge: Fact and Law in Comparative Perspective”.
A.R. Radcliffe-Brown, Structure and Function of Primitive Society, chs. XI and XII.
A.I. Pershits, “The Primitive Norm and Its Evolution”.
Carol Greenhouse, “Looking at Culture, Looking for Rules”.
Bernard Cohn, “Anthropological Notes on Disputes and Law in India”.
Donald R. Davis, Jr. “Recovering the Indigenous Legal Traditions of India”.
Sumit Guha, “Wrongs and Rights in the Maratha Country: Antiquity, Custom and Power in Eighteenth Century India”.
Anna-Maria Marshall and Scott Barclay, “In Their Own Words: How Ordinary People Construct the Legal World”.
Marc Galanter, Law and Society in Modern India, Part II.
Sarah Leah Whitson, “Lok Adalats: An Experiment in Informal Dispute Resolution in India”.
Module Four: Contested domains: Law and Rights in contemporary debates on Secularism and Identity Politics
Essays by Ashish Nandy, Rajeev Bhargava and Donald Smith in Rajeev Bhargava (ed), Secularism and its critics, (Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1998).
Sessions 12 and 13:
(i) Everson v. Board Of Education Of Ewing 330 US 1 (1947).
(ii) Wisconsin v. Yoder 32 L.Ed.2d 15.
(iii). Constituent Assembly debates.
(iv) Text of Indian constitution Arts. 25-28.
(v) The Commissioner Hindu Religious Endowments, Madras v. Sri Laxmindra Thirtha Swamiar of Shirur Mut AIR 1954 SC 282.
(vi) S.R. Bommai v. Union of India (1994) 3 SCC 1.
(vii)Sastri Yagnapurushadji And Others v. Muldas Bhudardas Vaishya AIR 1966 SC 1119.
(viii) Ramesh Yashwant Prabhoo (Dr.) v. Prabhakar K. Kunte, (1996) 1 SCC 130.
(ix) State of Karnataka v. Praveen Togadia 2004 (4) SCC (May 14th).
Guyora Binder and Weisberg, “Cultural Criticism of Law”.
COURSE 503 2005-06
Monsoon Semester 2005
Instructor: Mrinalini Sebastian
Course Requirements: Classroom presentations and a term paper.
This course seeks to investigate the discursive contexts within which the ‘women’s question’ gets linked to questions of ‘culture’/community/religion and ‘reform’. What are the conceptual presuppositions of the discourse of reform that get articulated as ‘cultural’ and ‘gender’ questions? The readings will be organised around the following three themes:
i. Nineteenth Century Social Reform Movements and the ‘Women’s Question’
ii. Indian Women’s Movement and Challenges to the articulation of a ‘subject’ of feminism
iii. Islam and Feminism
Session 1: Introduction
Mary Olympe de Gouges, “The Rights of Women”. In French Feminism: An Indian Anthology, ed. Danielle Haase-Dubose, Marcelle Marini, Rama Melkote, Susie Tharu.
J.S. Mill. “The Subjection of Women”, Chapter 3. In On Liberty and Other Writings. Ed. Stefan Collini. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women, Chapter IV
i. Nineteenth Century Social Reform Movements and the ‘Women’s Question’
Rajaram Mohan Roy, Bentinck
Ramabai, “ The High Caste Hindu Woman,”
Lata Mani, “Contentious Traditions”
Tarabai Shinde, “A Comparison between Women and Men”.
Phule, From Selected Writings
Partha Chatterjee, “Nationalist Resolution of the Woman’s Question”
Excerpts from Katherine Mayo, Selections from Mother India and Muthulakshmi’s response to Mayo.
Tanika Sarkar, “Strishiksha, or Education for Women,” and Rashsundari Debi, “Amar Jiban” in Words to Win: The Making of Amar Jiban: A Modern Autobiography
Meera Kosambi, “Gender Reform and Competing State Controls over Women: The Rakhmabai Case (1884- 1888)
Sudhir Chandra, Expositions by Dadaji and Rakhmabai, Appendix: C and D in Enslaved Daughters: Colonialism, Law and Women’s Rights
Janaki Nair, “’Social Reform’ and the Women’s Question”
ii. Indian Women’s Movement and Challenges to the articulation of a ‘subject’ of feminism
Gandhi, Nandita and Nandita Shah. “Organizations and Autonomy”
Gender and Politics in India. Ed. Nivedita Menon.
Susie Tharu and K. Lalitha, “Women Writing the Nation,” Women Writing in India
Dipta Bhog, “Gender and Curriculum,” EPW April 27, 2002
Malavika Karlekar, “Woman’s Nature and the Access to Education,” Socialization, Education and Women: Explorations.
Neera Desai, Vina Mazumdar and Kamalini Bhansali, “From Women’s Education to Women’s Studies”
Kalpana Ram, “Rationalism, Cultural Nationalism and the Reform of the Body Politics: Minority Intellectuals of the Tamil Catholic Community”, in Social Reform, Sexuality and the State, ed. Patricia Uberoi, Sage, 1996, pp. 291- 318.
Gabriela Dietrich, “Women and Religious Identities in India after Ayodhya” in Against All Odds: Essays on Women, Religion and Development from India and Pakistan, ed. Kamla Bhasin, Ritu Menon and Nighat Said, pp.35-50.
Flavia Agnes, “Constitutional Challenges, Communal Hues and Reforms within Personal Laws” (Unpublished article)
Bat-Ami Bar On, “Marginality and Epistemic Privilege”
Sandra Harding, “Rethinking Standpoint Epistemology: What is Strong Objectivity?”
Joan Scott, “Experience”
Dossier on Fire, Journal of Inter-Asia Cultural Studies
Mary E. John, “Alternate Modernities: Reservations and Women’s Movement in 20th Century India” EPW October 28, 2000
Sharmila Rege, “ A Dalit Feminist Standpoint”
Susi Tharu and Tejaswini Niranjana, “Problems for a Contemporary Theory of Gender”
Kumkum Sangari, “Politics of Diversity: Religious Communities and Multiple Patriarchies”
Tejaswini Niranjana, “ Feminism and Translation in India,: Contexts, Politics, Futures” Cultural Dynamics, Vol 10, Number 2 (July 1998): 133-146
iii. Islam and Feminism
Okin, “Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women?”
Azizah Y al-Habiri, “Is Western Patriarchal Feminism Good for Third World/Minority Women?”
Martha Nussbaum, “The Role of Religion”
Seyla Benhabib, “Multiculturalism and Gendered Citizenship”, The Claims of Culture: Equality and Diversity in the Global Era
Valentine M. Moghadam, “Islamic Feminism and its Discontents: Toward a Resolution of the Debate,” Signs. Vol. 27, no.4 (Summer 2002):1135- 1171.
Amina Wadud, “Towards a Quranic Hermeneutics of Social Justice: Race, Class and Gender,” Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 12, no.1(1995-1996): 37-50.
Saba Mahmood, “Feminist Theory, Embodiment, and the Docile Agent: Some Reflections on the Egyptian Islamic Revival”
Sisters in Islam, from Hudud in Malaysia
Akeel Bilgrami, “What is a Muslim?”
COURSE 504 2005-06
This course will explore, largely through Foucault’s posthumously published volumes of lectures at the College de France, questions involved in conceptualizing a history of objects, practices, knowledges and problematizations. What Foucault undertakes historically is not what history as a discipline is equipped to deal with. Foucault is using history or historical material genealogically to come to terms with problems that are philosophical. He often characterizes his genealogical investigations as an attempt to arrive at a “history of truth” or as an attempt “to define the conditions in which human beings ‘problematize’ what they are, what they do, and the world in which they live.” We will study Foucault’s project as providing us with a “conceptual story” of the West, a story that will transform our understanding of the role of history, philosophy and, more generally, the human sciences in the constitution of the West as a culture. We will seek theoretical and methodological clarity about this project by focusing on three themes.
1) genealogy and history: how does Foucault distinguish genealogy from history, since the material and often the method Foucault uses are historical? How does genealogy decide what objects or domains require genealogical analysis?
2) problematization and normativization: what is “problematization” and what is its relationship to “truth” and “norm”? What is the relationship between, on the one hand, practices and knowledge of practices and, on the other hand, truth and norm?
3) intellectual knowledge and spiritual knowledge. How does Foucault distinguish one from the other? How is Foucault’s study of them different from how a historian of ideas or a philosopher would study them? What is the status of Foucault’s own genealogy, in relation to the human sciences that are the objects of his investigation and in relation to the types of knowledges he is trying to understand?
We will also indirectly be asking how Foucault’s project could be of help in telling a “conceptual story” of India.
We will mainly be using The Hermeneutics of the Subject, Society Must be Defended, and Abnormal along with some books and articles that draw from these lectures. The decision to use the lectures as the main material is based on the fact that each of these lecture volumes is far richer in insight and cover more ground methodologically and theoretically than the corresponding book. Also, since these lectures are as it were intermediate between “raw” research and the “finished” product, they give us a lively sense of an acute thinker conveying the excitement of research to his audience (there is also the hope that this might make my pedagogical task a little easier). We will, however, be looking closely at some of his books and essays too. Ultimately, of course, it is my interpretation of Foucault’s intellectual trajectory that provides the justification for my choice of texts and problems; my contribution to the course itself can be seen, explicitly when needed but most often implicitly, as providing the justification for my interpretation. How much material we cover and how deeply we will explore the issues will depend almost entirely on the interest and commitment you bring to the class.
Course requirements: written notes for each class is recommended; one presentation; one paper (3000-5000 words) that addresses the themes or problems discussed in the course.
(The Lecture Volume followed by the corresponding books/essays)
The Uses of Pleasure (UP)
Fearless Speech (FS)
“About the Beginning of The Hermeneutics of the Self”
“Politics and Reason”
“What is Enlightenment”
“Politics and Method”
History of Sexuality vol I
General introduction: Map of the issues and arguments to be covered.
The importance of Foucault—The trajectory of his work— “The permanent anthropologism of the West—“The historical ontology” of the West. If you have the time, I recommend that you read “What is Enlightenment?” and “About the Beginning of The Hermeneutics of the Self” (in Michel Foucault, Religion and Culture) for the first session itself.
Weeks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
The next five weeks we will work through the first group of readings with HS as our major focus. Although the text is rather long (about 500 pages), it’s eminently accessible. However, you may omit lectures 3, 4, 22, 23, 24. Begin reading UP and FS concurrently.
Intellectual knowledge and spiritual knowledge—Care of the self in antiquity—Christian transformation of the Greek-Roman problematics—Dietetics, economics, erotics, wisdom—Truthtelling and Subjectity, Ethics and Morality---Normativization.
Short student presentations in weeks 5, 6.
Weeks 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
(If the course has picked up momentum, we might be able to finish this group of reading in 4 weeks).
The central text for this phase, SMD, is a bit tough-going. The other texts, however, are relatively straightforward and short.
Secularization of Western Culture?—History and Politics—Race and Class—Characterizing governmentalization—Genealogy and history.
Presentations in week 10, 11.
Weeks 12, 13.
Both the texts are relatively easy.
Secularization at work—bodies and in-depth Christianization—Body and Flesh—Scientia Sexualis—Self, Truth and Confession—Scientism of human sciences.
Presentations in week 13.
Experience, Truth and Norm: Reconstrction of the road traversed. Theoretical and methodological implications of Foucault’s characterization of Western experience.
COURSE 505 2005-06
This course attempts to track the relationship between available definitions of selfhood, and their link with issues of objectivity, the production of reality, and what psychoanalysis names the ‘symbolic order’. We shall explore this relationship over three areas:
The psychoanalytic conception of selfhood: the processes of splitting, externalisation, phantasy, identification and idealisation as defences of the ego. We will go into some detail into symbolic production, its perceived role, and the strongly transactional nature of subjectivity.
The location of objectivity in history: the ‘objectification of man by the state’. The rise of the citizen as an apparatus for defining object-relations. The conception and role of the nation in situating and narrativising tranactional subjectivity. National space as a space for projection and the state’s intervention into protocols of how to recognise and project/introject objectivity in order to establish an apparatus of discipline.
Techologies of objectivity-production: the arrival of technologies of reproduction and mediation of reality precisely at the interface of objectivity, as a means for efficient production of symbolic form. We shall investigate Renaissance painting in some detail, especially on the theory of the vanishing point, the perception of reality as constituting a perennial loss. We shall also investigate the European perception of the cinema, as a machine of visibility-production and its regurgitation of reality, on the field of this loss.
Introduction to the Course
Initial Debate using The Intepretation of Dreams (v 4, The Pelican Freud Library)
The ‘Conscious’ Self
S. Freud: From The Interpretation of Dreams: ‘The Work of Displacement’, ‘The Means of Representation’, ‘Conditions of Representability’.
Other suggested reading: From Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis (v 1, the Pelican Freud Library),
‘Censorship in Dreams’, ‘The Symbolic in Dreams’, ‘The Dream Work’
From On Metapsychology (v 11, the Pelican Freud Library), ‘The Unconscious’, pg 161-222.
Technologies of Realism – 1
E. Panofsky, ‘History of the Theory of Human Proportions’, from Meaning in the Visual Arts.
N. Bryson, From Vision and Painting, ‘The Natural Attitude’, ‘The Essential Copy’ and ‘Perceptualism’.
S. Freud, From Art & Literature (v 14 The Pelican Freud Library)‘The Moses of Michelangelo’, pg 250-282.
Suggested Reading: Andre Breton, Manifestoes of Surrealism.
Selfhood and Symbolism: Narrative Questions
Hanna Segal, ‘Phantasy’, ‘Symbolism’, and ‘Mental Space and Elements of Symbolism’, in Segal, Dream, Phantasy and Art, Pg 16-63.
Joseph Sandler and Meir Perlow, ‘Internalization and Externalization’ and Sandler, ‘The Concept of Projective Identification’, in Joseph Sandler ed. Projection, Identification, Projective Identification, London: Karnac Books, 1989, pg 1-13.
Ashish Rajadhyaksha: ‘Revisiting The View From the Teashop’. On the painting by Bhupen Khakhar.
Suggested background reading: Geeta Kapur, Contemporary Indian Artists, and Bhupen Khakhar: A Retrospective, National Gallery of Modern Art.
Further Questions on Narrative
The Construction of Public Selfhood: Investigating the Symbolic Order
K. Marx, ‘Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Law’, v 3, Karl Marx/Frederick Engels, Collected Works.
Ernest Renan, ‘What is a Nation?’ and Martin Thom, ‘Tribes Within Nations: The Ancient Germans and the History of Modern France’, in Homi K. Bhabha ed. Nation and Narration, (pg 8-43).
Etienne Balibar, ‘The Nation Form: History and Ideology’, from Balibar and Wallerstein, Race, Nation, Class: Ambuiguous Identities.
Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, The Invention of Tradition.
K. Marx, ‘The Holy Family’, in v 4, Karl Marx/Frederick Engels, Collected Works.
The Symbolic Order and Hegemony – Further Considerations
E. Laclau/C. Mouffe
‘Our’ Cultures - 1: National Biographies
Govardhanram Tripathi: Saraswatichandra
Shailesh Kapadia, ‘Dreams of Govardhanram Tripathi: A Psychoanalytic View’, Occasional Paper, Centre for Social Studies, Surat, Dec 1992.
Susie Tharu, ‘Citizenship and its Discontents’ in John/Nair ed. A Question Of Silence? The Sexual Economies of Modern India.
‘Our’ Cultures - 2: Archaicness, Memory, Primitivity and The Present
Memory, Time and the Past
Romila Thapar, ‘Time as a Metaphor of History’, in Thapar, History and Beyond.
Shahid Amin, Chauri Chaura: Event, Metaphor, Memory
Partha Chatterjee, ‘The Nation in Heterogeneous Time’.
Vivek Dhareshwar, ‘Our Time: History, Sovereignty, Politics’.
F. Engels, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, pg 190-255. (Selected Works v 3).
D.D. Kosambi, ‘Introduction’ and ‘Social and Economic Aspects of the Bhagavad Geeta’, in Myth And Reality.
Romila Thapar, ‘The Contribution of D.D. Kosambi to Indology’, in Cultural Pasts: Essays in Early Indian History.
Screening: Ritwik Ghatak, Ajantrik, and Meghe Dhaka Tara.
Technologies of Realism - 2
In Conscious West
Out Unconscious Non-West
M. Foucault, ‘Technologies of the Self’.
Jean-Louis Comolli, ‘Machines of the Visible’, in Teresa de Laurentis and Stephen Heath (ed.) The Cinematic Apparatus, pg. 121-142.
Kaja Silverman, The Acoustic Mirror: The Female Voice in Psychoanalysis and Cinema, ‘Lost Objects and Mistaken Subjects: A Prologue’, ‘Body Talk’ and ‘The Fantasy of the Maternal Voice: Paranoia and Compensation’ (pg 1-101).
Jean-Pierre Oudart, ‘Cinema and Suture’, Screen v 18 n 4 (1977-78).
Indigenous Theories of Psychoanalysis
First Set of Student Presentations
Second Set of Student Presentations
COURSE 506 2005-06
CSCS Ph.D. and Diploma 2005-2006
Winter Semester 2006
Instructor: S.V. Srinivas
This course is aimed at helping students with their research writing. The early part of the course will examine methodological questions. Particular attention will be paid to the issues thrown up by Anthropology and History and their possible uses in Cultural Studies research. The course will then focus on making the students write a draft research proposal. Students will learn to demarcate the context of research, identify a research problem, and reflect on the methodology to be used in their thesis. In order to do so they will be given a number of writing assignments in which they will be also be expected to demonstrate their knowledge of standard citation formats.
The course does not have prescribed readings but handouts will be provided.
Session I: Discussion on methodology. First session on Anthropology by Dr. Ritty Lucose.
Session II: Discussion on methodology continued. Second session on Anthropology by Dr. Ritty Lucose.
Session III: The paragraph. Writing exercises.
Session IV: Sources and Bibliographies. Establishing the context for research. Identifying the research problem. Use of evidence. The role of hypothesis. Using the library. [Hand in exercise on paraphrasing]
Session V: Looking at earlier research proposals. Defining the focus of research. How to define your key concepts. [Hand in note on research topic and preliminary search for sources]
Session VI: Structuring the research proposal.
Session VII: Compiling a bibliography. Demarcating the field of research. [Hand in critical review of three or more texts related to your research topic.]
Session VIII: Using the archive. [Discussion with Dr. Sanghamitra Mishra]
Session IX: Writing the research proposal. [Hand in note in which a ‘proposal’ is written after reading a thesis or book related to the topic of research].
Session X: Discussion of Proposals 1 and 2.
Session XI: Proposals 3 and 4.
Session XII: Proposals 5 and 6.
Session XIII: Final Suggestions